A cryptographic hash function used in a variety of ways in Bitcoin, including proof of work and when creating Bitcoin addresses.

Shamir's Secret Sharing

A method for securely sharing a secret (like a private key) in a distributed manner, where a certain threshold must be met to reconstruct the original secret.


A type of zero-knowledge proof system that offers smaller proof sizes and quicker verification than STARKs.


A type of zero-knowledge proof that is more scalable and quantum resistant than SNARKs.

Schnorr signatures

A signature scheme in Bitcoin activated in the Taproot upgrade with BIP340. Schnorr signatures offer several advantages over ECDSA in terms of efficiency, scalability, and privacy.

Synthetic asset

Collateral-backed assets whose value fluctuates depending on a reference price. They can be defined as anything an oracle can attest to, from digital securities or a share of Apple stock to entire index funds like the S&P 500.

Satoshis (sats)

The smallest denomination of Bitcoin, named after its pseudonymous creator(s), Satoshi Nakamoto. One sat represents 1/100,000,000 (one hundred millionths) of a Bitcoin or 0.00000001 BTC.